Home Medizin Studie gibt Aufschluss über die Zusammensetzung der Kernmatrix von Arabidopsis thaliana

Studie gibt Aufschluss über die Zusammensetzung der Kernmatrix von Arabidopsis thaliana

von NFI Redaktion


Chromatin is a unique DNA and protein complex that makes up chromosomes. Specific proteins (histones) wrap DNA like tiny spools to package the long DNA. A spool (consisting of four pairs of histones) with coiled DNA is called a nucleosome and is the smallest unit of chromatin.

The nuclear matrix, known as the scaffold for chromatin, has fascinated scientists since its discovery in the 1970s. While its existence was recognized in mammalian cells, its significance in plant nuclei remained unclear. An international research team has now solved this puzzle, shedding light on the composition of the nuclear matrix and how it influences chromatin status and plant development.

The study identified numerous proteins associated with the nuclear matrix in Arabidopsis thaliana. These include well-known nuclear matrix proteins such as AtSUN1, AtSUN2, and AHL22, as well as novel proteins FRS7 and FRS12.

This discovery expands our understanding of the molecular composition of the nuclear matrix.

Prof. Dr. Hua Jiang, Head of the independent research group „Applied Chromosome Biology“ at IPK

The research goes beyond mere identification of components; it delves into understanding the functions of the nuclear matrix and its associated proteins in chromatin regulation. Using genome-wide sequencing, the researchers first identified the genome-wide distribution of regions connected by the nuclear matrix in plants. „The results show a preference for head and tail of gene-coding regions, mainly associated with active epigenetic markings and highly expressed genes, with some lowly expressed genes also bound by the nuclear matrix,“ says Linhao Xu, lead author of the study. These results indicate composite functions of the nuclear matrix in chromatin and transcription regulation.

Furthermore, the study reveals that AHL22, in collaboration with FRS7 and FRS12, is a central regulator of hypocotyl elongation, the upward growth of the embryonic axis in a plant seedling that occurs between the emergence of the cotyledon and root. This process is crucial for plant growth and survival. By regulating the expression of genes essential for the auxin signaling pathway, AHL22 acts as a conductor for chromatin and epigenetic regulators. „The AHL22 complex orchestrates the anchoring of genes to the nuclear matrix and recruits the histone deacetylase HDA15 to modify histone acetylation,“ says Shiwei Zheng, another lead author of the study. „This positions the AHL22 complex as a central hub for chromatin regions and epigenetic regulators, revealing an unknown facet of nuclear matrix function.“

Considering the nuclear matrix as a key regulator of chromatin and chromatin status responses to environmental changes, the exploration of nuclear matrix function in response to conditional stress is particularly intriguing.

Source:

Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research

Journal Reference:

Xu, L., et al.. (2024). Chromatin binding to the nuclear matrix suppresses hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature Communications. doi.org/10.1038/s41467-024-45577-5.

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