Home Medizin Neue Erkenntnisse darüber, wie sich Erfahrungen und Merkmale der Neurodiversität bei Erwachsenen im Vereinigten Königreich unterscheiden

Neue Erkenntnisse darüber, wie sich Erfahrungen und Merkmale der Neurodiversität bei Erwachsenen im Vereinigten Königreich unterscheiden

von NFI Redaktion


A new study has revealed insights into the diverse experiences and characteristics of neurodiversity in adults in the United Kingdom.

There are differences in the traits and experiences of people in all population groups. Neurodivergent individuals, such as those diagnosed with ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia, or autism, may perceive the world in different ways. But we are only just beginning to understand how the characteristics and experiences associated with neurodivergence differ across the population as a whole.

Now, a new study from the University of Birmingham has provided a more detailed picture of what neurodiversity looks like in adults across the UK.

The research is published in JCPP Advances.

Professor Ian Apperly, Professor of Cognition and Development and Director of the Centre for Developmental Science at the University of Birmingham, who led the study, said, „The experiences of people with neurological developmental disorders are very diverse, and it is common for people to have more than one condition.“ Previous research has, for example, found that the prevalence of ADHD in autistic individuals is around 40%.

„We also know that people across the population exhibit traits associated with neurodiversity to varying degrees. It’s not just individuals with a diagnosed neurological developmental disorder whose experiences are influenced by these traits. What we don’t have is a detailed understanding of what this looks like. This raises important questions that can enhance our understanding of the complexity of neurodiversity in the general population.“

Professor Apperly and his team asked 1000 representative individuals from the British population, aged 18-70, to report on their experiences with traits commonly associated with autism, ADHD, dyslexia, and other conditions. For example:

  • High values for traits associated with autism were linked to experiencing challenges in social and imaginative skills, a higher preference for routines, and attention to details, numbers, and patterns.
  • High values for traits associated with ADHD were linked to tendencies towards inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
  • High values for cortical over-excitability were linked to visual sensitivity and unusual visual experiences.
  • High values for traits associated with dyslexia were linked to lower reading proficiency and word finding.

Although traits associated with different neurological developmental disorders are often considered separately, the study found that there was a high degree of overlap when examining them simultaneously, meaning individuals reporting high traits for one disorder also tended to report experiences associated with other disorders.

However, the research also found evidence of distinctive traits associated with specific disorders that go beyond this overall common neurodiversity.

„We found substantial overlap in the broader traits associated with different neurological developmental disorders, so that individuals with higher traits associated with one disorder (e.g., ADHD) were also more likely to have higher traits associated with other neurological developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD, autism, dyslexia, dyspraxia, tic disorders). However, we also found that the same traits can be explained by different underlying causes. For example, some individuals reported a high level of several traits associated with autism, even though they did not, in total, have a high level of neurodivergent traits, while others reported a high level of autistic traits alongside a high level of traits associated with other conditions. And some combinations were particularly unusual. For example, people showing a high level of traits related to dyslexia and dyspraxia tended to show little interest in numbers and patterns.“


Ian Apperly, Professor of Cognition and Development and Director of the Centre for Developmental Science at the University of Birmingham

This study is the most extensive examination to date of the diversity of how traits associated with neurological developmental disorders manifest in adults in the United Kingdom. The researchers state that it has provided important benchmark data and a framework for studying neurodiversity across the entire population, including individuals with one or more diagnoses.

Professor Apperly concluded, „Our findings contribute to understanding the complexity of neurodiversity. They help us understand traits and experiences that are common in neurological developmental disorders but also those that are different. The study also helps us understand how two people with the same diagnosis can still have quite different traits and experiences. By providing a picture of how neurodiversity occurs across the entire population, this research can lead to improvements for future studies in this field. The more we know about the experiences of other people, the better we can understand each other.“

Source:

Journal reference:

Apperly, IA, et al. (2024). A transdiagnostic approach to neurodiversity in a representative population sample: The N+4 model. JCPP Advances. doi.org/10.1002/jcv2.12219.

Related Posts

Adblock Detected

Please support us by disabling your AdBlocker extension from your browsers for our website.