Home Medizin Laut Studie ist Cannabiskonsum mit einem höheren Risiko für Herzinfarkte und Schlaganfälle verbunden

Laut Studie ist Cannabiskonsum mit einem höheren Risiko für Herzinfarkte und Schlaganfälle verbunden

von NFI Redaktion

A study conducted at the University of California, USA, reveals that cannabis consumption may increase the risk of serious cardiovascular events, with more intense consumption associated with higher cardiovascular risk.

The study is published in the Journal of the American Heart Association.


Study: Link between cannabis consumption and cardiovascular outcomes in adults in the USA. Photo credit: Bits And Splits / Shutterstock



Study: Link between cannabis consumption and cardiovascular outcomes in adults in the USA. Photo credit: Bits And Splits / Shutterstock

Background

The prevalence of cannabis consumption among adults in the USA has increased from 10% in 2002 to 18% in 2019. The number of cases of cannabis use disorders in the USA has also risen over time. This trend could be attributed to a decreasing perception of the harmful effects of cannabis consumption among the general population. National surveys indicate that the percentage of individuals believing in health risks associated with cannabis use decreased from 50% in 2002 to 28% in 2019.

Cannabis consumption is known to be associated with atherosclerotic heart disease. Tetrahydrocannabinol, a component of cannabis, has been shown to increase the risk of syncope, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Cannabis is primarily inhaled through smoking, which can have additional adverse effects on the cardiovascular system.

In this study, researchers analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey from 2016 to 2020 to determine the link between cannabis consumption and cardiovascular outcomes in adults in the USA.

Study Design

The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey is a telephone survey conducted by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 27 states and two territories. The data of 434,104 survey participants aged 18 to 74 years were analyzed in this study.

To determine the frequency of cannabis consumption, the number of days of cannabis use in the last 30 days was analyzed. Self-reported cardiovascular outcomes included coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and a composite measure of all three cardiovascular events.

Cardiovascular risk factors adjusted in the analysis included tobacco use, alcohol consumption, electronic cigarette nicotine use, body mass index, diabetes, and physical activity.

Key Findings

The prevalence of daily, non-daily, and never cannabis consumption in the overall study population was estimated at 4%, 7.1%, and 88.9%, respectively. The majority (61%) of participants reported never smoking tobacco cigarettes. The prevalence of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and the combined outcome were 3.5%, 3.6%, 2.8%, and 7.4%, respectively in the study population.

The prevalence of current tobacco use and daily alcohol consumption was significantly higher among daily and non-daily cannabis consumers compared to never cannabis consumers. Significant differences were observed in the distribution of cardiovascular events among daily, non-daily, and never cannabis consumers, with estimates being lowest among non-daily consumers.

After adjusting for demographic characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors, the analysis revealed a significant association between cannabis consumption and the risks of myocardial infarction, stroke, and the combined outcome of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The risk of cardiovascular events increased with longer durations of cannabis consumption.

The strong association observed between cannabis consumption and cardiovascular outcomes in the entire study population remained similar in adults who had never smoked tobacco cigarettes. Among participants who had never smoked tobacco cigarettes and electronic cigarettes, cannabis consumption showed a significant association with stroke and the overall outcome, but not with coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction.

A subgroup analysis of men under 55 years and women under 55 years, who were at risk of premature cardiovascular disease, revealed that cannabis consumption was significantly associated with an increased risk of all tested cardiovascular diseases. These associations remained similar for those who had never smoked tobacco cigarettes and electronic cigarettes.

Study Implications

The study concludes that cannabis consumption is linked to an increased risk of heart attack and stroke, with this association stronger in individuals with higher frequency of cannabis consumption per month.

Notably, adults in the USA who have never smoked tobacco cigarettes exhibit a similar link between cannabis consumption and adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

Overall, the results underscore the need to screen patients for cannabis consumption and advise them to quit the habit to reduce the risk of premature cardiovascular disease and cardiac events.

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