Home Medizin Laut einer Analyse übersteigt die weltweite Fettleibigkeitsrate eine Milliarde

Laut einer Analyse übersteigt die weltweite Fettleibigkeitsrate eine Milliarde

von NFI Redaktion

According to a global analysis published in The Lancet, the total number of children, adolescents, and adults worldwide living with obesity has surpassed one billion. These trends, along with the decreasing prevalence of underweight individuals since 1990, have made obesity the most common form of malnutrition in most countries. The analysis of global data estimates that the obesity rate in children and adolescents worldwide was four times higher in 2022 than in 1990. For adults, the obesity rate has more than doubled in women and nearly tripled in men. In total, in 2022, 159 million children and adolescents and 879 million adults were living with obesity. Between 1990 and 2022, the percentage of children and adolescents globally affected by underweight decreased by around one-fifth for girls and more than one-third for boys. The percentage of adults worldwide affected by underweight halved during the same period. Obesity and underweight are both forms of malnutrition and harm people’s health in various ways. This latest study provides a detailed picture of global trends in both forms of malnutrition over the past 33 years. Senior author Professor Majid Ezzati from Imperial College London said, „It is very concerning that the obesity epidemic, which was observed in adults in many parts of the world in 1990, is now also reflected in children and adolescents of school age.“ „Hundreds of millions of people are still affected by undernutrition, especially in some of the poorest parts of the world. To successfully combat both forms of undernutrition, it is important that we significantly improve the availability and affordability of healthy, nutrient-rich foods.“ The new study, conducted by the NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), analyzed weight and height measurements from over 220 million people aged five years or older (63 million aged five to 19 years and 158 million aged 20 years or older) from more than 190 countries. More than 1,500 researchers contributed to the study, which examined the Body Mass Index (BMI) to understand how obesity and underweight have changed globally from 1990 to 2022. Adults were considered affected by obesity if they had a BMI of at least 30 kg/m² and underweight if their BMI was below 18.5 kg/m². For children of school age (aged five to nine years) and adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years), the BMI used to define obesity and underweight was dependent on age and gender, as there is a significant increase in height and weight during childhood and adolescence. From 1990 to 2022, obesity rates worldwide more than quadrupled in girls (from 1.7% to 6.9%) and boys (from 2.1% to 9.3%), with an increase observed in almost all countries. The percentage of underweight girls decreased from 10.3% in 1990 to 8.2% in 2022, and for boys from 16.7% to 10.8%. A decrease in underweight rates was observed in 44 countries for girls and 80 countries for boys. The total number of children and adolescents affected by obesity in 2022 was almost 160 million (65 million girls and 94 million boys), compared to 31 million in 1990. While in 2022, 77 million girls and 108 million boys were underweight, indicating a decrease from 81 million girls and 138 million boys in 1990. For adults, the obesity rate more than doubled in women between 1990 and 2022 (from 8.8% to 18.5%) and nearly tripled in men (from 4.8% to 14.0%). The percentage of adults who were underweight halved between 1990 and 2022 (from 14.5% to 7.0% in women; 13.7% to 6.2% in men). In total, an estimated nearly 880 million adults were living with obesity in 2022 (504 million women and 374 million men), four and a half times more than the 195 million in 1990 (128 million women and 67 million men). Together with the 159 million children living with obesity in 2022, this totals over one billion people affected by obesity in 2022. Despite global population growth, there were 183 million women and 164 million men affected by underweight in 2022, 45 million and 48 million fewer than in 1990. These trends have led to a transition where in most countries, more people are affected by obesity than underweight. In 2022, obesity rates were higher than underweight rates for girls and boys in around two-thirds of countries worldwide (133 countries for girls and 125 countries for boys). This new study underscores the importance of preventing and addressing obesity from early life to adulthood through nutrition, physical activity, and appropriate care as needed. To achieve the global goals to curb obesity, the work of governments and communities, supported by evidence-based guidelines from the WHO and national health authorities, is required. It is essential that private sector collaboration is needed, as they are responsible for the health impact of their products.“ Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General In all age groups, the combined burden of both forms of malnutrition increased in most countries between 1990 and 2022, attributed to the rising obesity rate. However, the double burden of malnutrition decreased in many countries in South and Southeast Asia and in some countries in Africa among men, where the underweight rate significantly decreased. Guha Pradeepa, co-author of the study from the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, warns that major global issues pose a risk of exacerbating both forms of malnutrition, stating, „The effects of issues such as climate change, disruptions from the COVID-19 pandemic, etc., as well as the war in Ukraine, have the potential to increase both obesity and underweight rates as poverty rises and the cost of nutrient-rich foods increases. The consequences of this are inadequate nutrition in some countries and households and a shift to less healthy foods in others. To create a healthier world, comprehensive policy measures are needed to address these challenges.“ The increase in the double burden was most pronounced in some low- and middle-income countries, particularly in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Caribbean, as well as the Middle East and North Africa. In these countries, the obesity rate is now higher than in many high-income industrial countries, especially in Europe. Regional/Country data for adults Countries with the highest prevalence of obesity in 2022 were the island nations of Tonga and American Samoa for women, and American Samoa and Nauru for men in Polynesia and Micronesia, where more than 60% of the adult population lived with obesity. In the United Kingdom, the obesity rate increased from 13.8% in 1990 to 28.3% in 2022 for women and from 10.7% to 26.9% in 2022 for men. In 2022, the prevalence of obesity in the United Kingdom ranked 87th globally for women and 55th for men. In the United States, the obesity rate increased from 21.2% in 1990 to 43.8% in 2022 for women and from 16.9% to 41.6% in 2022 for men. The prevalence of obesity in the United States in 2022 ranked 36th globally for women and 10th for men. In China, the obesity rate increased from 2.0% in 1990 to 7.8% in 2022 for women and from 0.8% to 8.9% in 2022 for men. In 2022, the prevalence of obesity in China ranked 11th globally for women (190th highest) and 52nd for men (149th highest) globally. In India, the obesity rate increased from 1.2% in 1990 to 9.8% in 2022 for women and from 0.5% to 5.4% in 2022 for men. The prevalence of obesity in India in 2022 ranked 19th globally for women (182nd highest) and 21st for men (180th highest) globally. Countries with the highest prevalence of underweight in 2022 were Eritrea and Timor-Leste for women, and Eritrea and Ethiopia for men, where more than 20% of the adult population was affected by underweight. In China, the underweight rate decreased from 11.2% in…

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