Home Medizin Es wurde festgestellt, dass Mikroglia eine Schlüsselrolle bei der Regulierung der Reaktion des Körpers auf die Anästhesie spielen

Es wurde festgestellt, dass Mikroglia eine Schlüsselrolle bei der Regulierung der Reaktion des Körpers auf die Anästhesie spielen

von NFI Redaktion


Despite the surprise it may be for the millions of people who undergo general anesthesia for medical procedures every year, the biological mechanism by which various anesthetics block consciousness is still not fully understood. However, researchers may be one step closer after finding out how small immune cells in the brain, called microglia, are affected by general anesthesia.

The research was presented in an article published in eLife on December 22, 2023.

„We found that microglia play a crucial role in regulating the body’s response to general anesthesia. Microglia are essential immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that play a crucial role in the function and dysfunction of the CNS.“

– Bo Peng, Professor at the Institute of Translational Brain Research, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

Previous microglia research has shown changes in the behavior of the cells under anesthesia. However, this study is the first to show how microglia regulate neuronal activity in a brain region-specific manner and play a key role in the mechanism of anesthesia.

The first insight into the influence of microglia on the effectiveness of anesthesia was unintentionally observed in other studies and then confirmed through additional tests. Microglia depletion was induced in mice by blocking the signal transmission of the Colony Stimulating Factor 1 Receptor (CSF1R). When microglia were depleted using a CSF1R inhibitor called PLX5622, a strong resistance to anesthesia was observed. This resistance to anesthesia was observed with four different types of anesthesia using two different receptors, and the observations were confirmed through measurements of electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG).

Microglia also regulate the network activity of the brain in a region-specific manner rather than universal. Different parts of the brain regulate the induction and onset of anesthesia. „We found that microglia can facilitate and stabilize the response to general anesthesia by modulating the neuronal network in a brain region-specific manner. This is mediated by the microglial P2Y12 receptor and its downstream calcium signaling,“ said Peng. Due to this region-specific regulation, microglia depletion not only delayed the duration of the anesthesia (delayed induction) but also led to the anesthesia wearing off more quickly (early emergence). „Our results also suggest that microglia contribute to the orchestration of CNS function in refined and diverse ways, rather than playing a random role in negative feedback control,“ added Peng.

Looking ahead, researchers aim to learn more about microglial cells and the association of the P2Y12 receptor with neurological disorders. This receptor seems essential for stable neuronal networks and is suppressed in numerous neurological conditions. Additionally, researchers will continue to learn how general anesthesia works. „Looking forward, we plan to further investigate the mechanism of general anesthesia and the contribution of microglia to the function of the central nervous system (CNS),“ said Yousheng Shu, who is also a professor at the Institute of Translational Brain Research at Fudan University.

Additional contributors to the study are Yang He, Taohui Liu, Quansheng He, Wei Ke, Xiaoyu Li, Jinjin Du, Suixin Deng, Zhenfeng Shu, Jialin Wu, Baozhi Yang, Yuqing Wang, Ying Mao, Yanxia Rao, and Yousheng Shu.

The research was supported by the STI2030 Grand Projects, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the „Shuguang Program“ supported by the Shanghai Education Development Foundation and the Shanghai Municipal Education Commission, the Shanghai Academic/Technology Research Leader Program, the innovative research team of the High-Level Local University in Shanghai, the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Major Project, and ZJ Lab.

Source:

Journal Reference:

Hey., et al. (2023). Microglia facilitate and stabilize the response to general anesthesia by modulating the neuronal network in a region-specific manner. eLife. doi.org/10.7554/eLife.92252.

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