Home Medizin Erforschung der Rolle von Jod bei Fettleibigkeit, Diabetes und anderen Stoffwechselerkrankungen

Erforschung der Rolle von Jod bei Fettleibigkeit, Diabetes und anderen Stoffwechselerkrankungen

von NFI Redaktion

Researchers recently published a study in Frontiers in Nutrition examining current data on the metabolic effects of iodine consumption and elucidating the underlying mechanisms.


Study: The Relationship Between Iodine and Metabolism: An Overview. Image Source: Evan Lorne/Shutterstock.com










Study: The Relationship Between Iodine and Metabolism: An Overview. Image Source: Evan Lorne/Shutterstock.com

Background

Iodine is an essential nutrient that supports the production of thyroid hormones and is associated with metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension.

However, the processes underlying these relationships are unknown. Iodine exerts immunomodulatory, antioxidative, and differentiating effects in several tissues and organs, altering the levels of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), the main regulators of energy metabolism.

The metabolic syndrome (MetS), which includes hypertension, abdominal obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia, is prevalent worldwide and can lead to cardiovascular diseases, malignancies, and death. Oxidative stress, chronic inflammatory conditions, and dietary changes are risk factors for MetS.

The nutritional status of iodine can partially explain the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome. Further investigation into the relationship between iodine and metabolism will contribute to a better understanding of its role and promote an appropriate and reliable iodine feeding standard.

About the Study

In this study, researchers examined the influence of iodine levels on metabolic health.

Research on the Effects of Iodine on Metabolism

The recommended daily allowance (RDA) of iodine ranges between 150 and 299 μg/day, with a moderately increased iodine intake potentially reducing the risk of prostate and breast cancer.

Cross-sectional studies suggest a U-shaped relationship between urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, with a nadir at 300 to 499 μg/L.

In Korean postmenopausal women, the consumption of seaweed and iodine showed a reverse correlation with MetS incidence; however, excessive seaweed intake showed adverse effects in male MetS patients with TT and TG genotypes of the lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL). A study in school-aged children, on the other hand, found associations between high UIC and MetS.

Studies in China found that central obesity decreased when UIC levels reached ≥ 300 μg/L. A randomized clinical trial found that individuals receiving iodine-reduced seaweed tablets had significantly lower body fat percentage.

A 28-day, placebo-controlled study found that supplementation with fucoxanthin seaweed reduced waist circumference, fat mass, visceral fat, weight, and BMI in overweight residents of Japan. However, in Colombian women of childbearing age, mUIC was positively associated with obesity.

The TIDE study revealed a U-shaped curve for the relationship between urinary iodine concentration and diabetes prevalence, with higher UIC values increasing the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with diabetes mellitus had lower UIC values compared to healthy individuals.

An increased iodine content in the placenta reduces gestational diabetes in pregnant women. The study also discovered a U-shaped curve in the correlation between UIC and the prevalence of hypertension, with individuals at sites with iodine excess (IE) and iodine sufficiency (IS) showing higher blood pressure levels. Iodine deficiency is a risk factor for preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension.

Studies have shown an inverse relationship between UIC, hyperuricemia, and gout prevalence. Longitudinal data indicated higher mortality rates in patients with ID (UIC < 100 μg/L).

Iodine consumption can increase blood cholesterol levels in chickens and cause liver steatosis in BaLB/c mice. In mice, higher iodine intake enhanced lipid metabolism without affecting thyroid hormone levels or body weight.

Mechanisms Underlying the Metabolic Effects of Iodine

Iodine exerts antioxidative, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and molecular regulatory effects. Iodine alters the ratio of pathogenic and beneficial bacteria to restore the gut microbiome and reduce parameters of insulin resistance, obesity, and metabolic syndrome.

Iodine also reduces inflammation by lowering oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by free radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Iodine acts on the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-NF-E2-related factor 2 (KEAP1-NRF2) signaling pathway to enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (Cat), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px).

Additionally, iodine alters the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and regulates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways to reduce chronic inflammation and improve metabolic health.

The mineral interacts with type 2 deiodinase (D2) receptors that convert T4 to biologically active T3, enhancing weight management and adaptive thermogenesis.

Iodine also interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) receptors to improve adipocyte differentiation, fatty acid uptake, and glucose metabolism by enhancing insulin sensitivity.

Conclusions

Overall, the review’s findings suggest that iodine influences obesity, lipid metabolism, and glucose metabolism. The antioxidative, immunomodulatory, gut-restorative, and antimicrobial effects of iodine explain the mineral’s effects.

Iodine regulates the oxidative state related to fluctuations in insulin sensitivity or insulin metabolism. However, iodine deficiency and persistent iodine excess may increase the risk of thyroid disorders.

Therefore, it is crucial to maintain iodine levels at an appropriate range at the population level. Future prospective studies and mechanistic research must develop an evidence-based and safe iodine nutrition standard.

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