Home Medizin Eine Umfrage unter Erwachsenen in den USA zeigt häufige kognitive Symptome bei Patienten nach COVID-19, die mit einer Beeinträchtigung der Alltagsfunktionen und Depressionen zusammenhängen

Eine Umfrage unter Erwachsenen in den USA zeigt häufige kognitive Symptome bei Patienten nach COVID-19, die mit einer Beeinträchtigung der Alltagsfunktionen und Depressionen zusammenhängen

von NFI Redaktion

A recent study published in the JAMA Network Open examined how frequently self-reported cognitive symptoms occurred in individuals with post-Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness compared to those who had previously had severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections but did not develop a post-COVID-19 condition. The study also investigated the effects of these cognitive symptoms on mood, function, and employment status.


Studie: Kognitive Symptome einer Post-COVID-19-Erkrankung und tägliche Funktionsfähigkeit.



Studie: Kognitive Symptome einer Post-COVID-19-Erkrankung und tägliche Funktionsfähigkeit. Bildnachweis: PeopleImages.com – Yuri A/Shutterstock.com

Hintergrund

One of the long-term impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic is the post-COVID-19 condition, commonly referred to as long Coronavirus Disease (Long-COVID), in which symptoms of acute SARS-CoV-2 infections persist or reoccur months after recovering from the initial infection. The condition involves wide-ranging symptoms affecting numerous organ systems, with fatigue, shortness of breath, and post-exertional malaise being the most common symptoms.

Mood swings and cognitive impairments have also been reported, with studies confirming the long-lasting effects of SARS-CoV-2 infections on neurological health. These lingering physical and neurological symptoms significantly impact the functionality and quality of life of patients long after recovering from the initial infection. Understanding how this condition affects an individual’s productivity or employment status is important in developing effective treatment mechanisms and public health strategies.

Über die Studie

The study used data from a survey conducted during two waves of COVID-19 in the United States among individuals reporting post-COVID-19 illness symptoms and those reporting complete recovery following a SARS-CoV infection. The data was collected in 50 US states between December 2022 and January 2023, and then again from April to May 2023.

Participants were over 18 years old, and the study population had balanced demographic factors such as gender, age, and racial and ethnic backgrounds. A validated measure of patient-reported outcomes was used to design questions regarding cognitive symptoms, with most questions focusing on the frequency of experiencing certain symptoms over the past week, with answers on a five-point scale.

Questions addressed the frequency of symptoms such as memory difficulties, task initiation difficulties, slowed thinking, multitasking difficulties, decision-making problems, and the need to be especially attentive to avoid errors. The number of symptoms and their presence, based on a frequency of at least once daily, were recorded for each patient.

A nine-point questionnaire was used to assess depressive symptoms, and patients were also asked to describe how these cognitive post-COVID-19 symptoms affected their daily activities. The participants‘ employment status was also recorded and categorized as full-time, contract, part-time, self-employed, homemaker, student, retiree, or unemployed.

Socio-demographic information collected from participants included self-reported data on race and ethnic backgrounds. The initial SARS-CoV-2 infection and post-COVID-19 condition were defined based on self-reported symptoms such as reports of positive COVID-19 test results.

Ergebnisse

The results showed that cognitive symptoms were widespread in individuals with post-COVID-19 illness, and these symptoms were associated with functional impairments and a decreased likelihood of full-time employment. The severity of depressive symptoms was also higher in individuals with cognitive post-COVID-19 symptoms.

The number of individuals with post-COVID-19 illness reporting cognitive impairments was significantly higher than those reporting cognitive symptoms but not suffering from post-COVID-19 illness. Additionally, women, younger individuals, and those with lower incomes had a higher prevalence of cognitive symptoms compared to individuals in other socio-demographic groups.

The researchers believe that the higher prevalence of cognitive impairments in younger individuals may be attributed to a significant deviation from baseline measurements before the COVID-19 pandemic. Cognitive impairments due to post-COVID-19 illness may not be as evident in older individuals who may already be experiencing age-related cognitive decline.

The study also suggested that the association between the increased prevalence of cognitive impairments in individuals from lower-income households may reflect the impact of economic stress on susceptibility to cognitive symptoms in post-COVID-19 illness.

Schlussfolgerungen

Overall, the study found that cognitive decline was widespread in individuals with long-term COVID-19 or post-COVID-19 illness, especially in younger individuals, women, and individuals from lower-income households.

Furthermore, it was observed that the likelihood of full-time employment in individuals with cognitive impairments due to long-term COVID-19 illness was lower, underscoring the need for public health strategies and treatment measures to improve the quality of life and functional capabilities of individuals suffering from post-COVID-19 illness.

Zeitschriftenreferenz:

  • Jaywant, A., Gunning, FM, Oberlin, LE, Santillana, M., Ognyanova, K., Druckman, JN, Baum, MA, Lazer, D. & Perlis, RH (2024). Kognitive Symptome des Post-COVID-19-Zustands und der täglichen Funktionsweise. JAMA-Netzwerk geöffnet7(2), e2356098–e2356098. doi: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.56098 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2815067?

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