Home Medizin Eine neue Grenze im Krankheitsmanagement und in der Krebsbehandlung

Eine neue Grenze im Krankheitsmanagement und in der Krebsbehandlung

von NFI Redaktion

In a recent study published in Nature titled „Signal Transmission and Targeted Therapy„, scientists examined the therapeutic potential and molecular mechanisms through which dietary interventions impact a wide range of human diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer.

Study: Effects of dietary interventions on human diseases: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential. Image Source: udra11/Shutterstock.com








Background

Diet and nutrition play a fundamental role in human health. The quantity, composition, and quality of food, as well as the timing of meals, are important determinants of nutrient availability, which in turn regulate physiological processes.

Recent research has also focused on understanding how diet influences the course of diseases. However, there is still a lack of information on the influence of specific dietary components on disease prevention or risk.

Results from various epidemiological studies have shown that certain dietary habits influence the risk of various diseases, including cancer.

While diets rich in sugar and saturated fats have been found to increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, a diet mainly consisting of vegetables, fruits, and fiber is believed to reduce the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

Similarly, a diet high in processed meat and alcohol is thought to increase cancer risk, while the Mediterranean diet is believed to lower cancer risk.

Metabolic Pathways and Nutrient Availability in Tumors

The researchers reviewed the existing knowledge on the differences in nutrient requirements and metabolic pathways between the tumor microenvironment and surrounding healthy tissue.

The immunosuppressive environment in tumors is due to cancer cells depriving immune cells of essential metabolites such as oxygen and glucose, while increasing concentrations of adenosine, lactase, and other mediators that further impair the function of immune cells.

The metabolic reprogramming that occurs within the tumor microenvironment affects various subsets of immune cells.

Key metabolic pathways in immune cells thought to be reprogrammed within the tumor microenvironment include the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, amino acid metabolism, and fatty acid synthesis.

The review examined each of these pathways in terms of the changes in nutritional requirements and metabolic characteristics within the tumor microenvironment.

Dietary Interventions and Cancer

The effects of dietary interventions on diseases, including cancer, can be better understood when the metabolic pathways of macronutrients such as proteins, fats, and carbohydrates are precisely understood.

The systemic metabolism can be modulated by regulating macronutrient intake and influencing the metabolic pathways utilized by these macronutrients.

Special diets such as ketogenic diets, calorie-restricted diets, high-fat diets, fasting-like diets, and even salt-rich diets, as well as dietary restrictions, are based on the concept of systemic metabolic modifications through modulation of macronutrient intake.

This overview extensively discussed these various dietary interventions and provided a comprehensive summary of the molecular mechanisms through which specific diets influence clinical outcomes in cancer patients.

The researchers also reviewed studies examining the role of dietary factors in cancer treatment, particularly the use of dietary interventions to enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy and other cancer treatments.

Calorie restrictions were found to enhance T-cell response to immunotherapy. In contrast, the use of calorie restriction mimetics improved the efficacy of chemotherapy and immunotherapy.

Calorie restriction was also found to be effective in modulating the tumor microenvironment in combination with radiation therapy in triple-negative breast cancer.

The review comprehensively analyzed the results of various studies exploring the effectiveness of specific dietary restrictions in combination with different cancer therapies in modulating the tumor microenvironment.

The scientists also discussed the changes induced by dietary interventions in the gut microbiome and the effectiveness of alterations in the gut microbiome in relation to cancer therapy.

Studies have shown that changes in the diversity and composition of the gut microbiome due to dietary interventions alter the amount of microbiota-derived metabolites that directly impact antitumor activity.

Dietary Interventions and Other Diseases

The overview also discussed the role of dietary interventions in preventing, delaying, or sometimes even initiating the progression of cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, metabolic, and autoimmune diseases.

They examined the relationship between nutrient availability, dietary habits, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, epilepsy, and Huntington’s disease.

The effects of dietary interventions on autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and multiple sclerosis were also addressed in this review.

Conclusion

Overall, the results of this review showed that dietary interventions play a significant role in human health and disease, with some interventions alone or in combination with other therapies slowing the progression of diseases like cancer or improving the efficacy of treatment methods, while others increasing the risk of various diseases.

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