Home Medizin ein möglicher Durchbruch in der postmenopausalen Osteoporoseprävention?

ein möglicher Durchbruch in der postmenopausalen Osteoporoseprävention?

von NFI Redaktion

A recent study published in Scientific Reports investigated the effects of daily sesame oil supplementation on postmenopausal osteoporosis in rats.


Sesame oil









Study: Daily sesame oil supplementation prevents postmenopausal osteoporosis by maintaining serum estrogen and aromatase levels in rats. Image source: masa44/Shutterstock.com

Background

Estrogen deficiency in older women leads to postmenopausal osteoporosis, characterized by decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and a negative impact on their quality of life.

Millions of people suffer from this condition, which increases the risk of fragility fractures. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a popular treatment for osteoporosis; however, it can lead to irregular vaginal bleeding and malignant breast cancer.

Therefore, more effective and safer treatments are needed. Sesame oil contains antioxidants, lignans, and fatty acids, and has shown to alter sex hormones in previous studies. While previous research has found osteoprotective benefits in ovariectomized mice (OVX), the exact mechanisms underlying the oil’s effect on postmenopausal osteoporosis in women are still unknown.

About the Study

The researchers of the present study investigated the potential processes behind daily sesame oil supplementation in a rat model of ovariectomized postmenopausal osteoporosis.

The study involved 12-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats that underwent bilateral OVX surgery. The team divided the animals into the following groups: Sham, OVX, SOL, and SOH. The sham group underwent a sham operation, the OVX group underwent OVX, the SOL group received 0.3 ml/kg per day orally, and the SOH group received 0.50 ml/kg per day of the oil orally for four months.

The researchers euthanized the rats through carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation following the experiments. They took rat blood samples for serological analysis, assessed BMD and concentrations of osteocalcin, collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTx), procollagen-I C-terminal propeptide (PICP), estradiol, and aromatase in the sera using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).

The researchers conducted histological examinations of the trabecular areas to confirm the osteoprotective effect of sesame oil on ovariectomized rats. Additionally, they evaluated the effect of sesame oil based on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the serum, osteocalcin levels, BMD, bone formation and resorption, PICP and NTx levels.

Furthermore, the researchers examined the influence of sex hormones on osteoporosis prevention with sesame oil based on estradiol levels in the sera of ovariectomized rats. Finally, they investigated the possible mechanisms underlying the oil’s effects on serum estradiol levels.

Results

The researchers found that daily intake of sesame oil significantly increased BMD, serum osteocalcin, and trabecular areas in ovariectomized rats. The oil also increased serum PICP levels and decreased NTx levels in these rats. Furthermore, it effectively maintained serum estradiol and aromatase levels in OVX-induced osteoporotic rats.

The histological examination revealed a significant reduction in trabecular areas in ovariectomized rats compared to sham rats. However, the trabeculae increased in the high and low sesame oil dose groups. The overall BMD was significantly lower in ovariectomized rats. The oil significantly increased overall BMD levels in the high and low sesame oil dose groups compared to OVX rats.

In OVX group rats, serum AP and osteocalcin levels were higher than in sham rats. However, rats in the SOH and SOL groups showed a significant reduction in these values compared to OVX rats. Serum estradiol levels were lower in OVX rats compared to sham rats, and the oil significantly increased serum estradiol levels in the SOH and SOL groups.

It was found that sesame oil, rich in phytoestrogenic compounds such as isoflavones, increased serological estradiol levels in ovariectomized rats and represents an alternative treatment to estrogen replacement with fewer side effects.

Genistein aglycone can reduce the ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) in ovariectomized rats and positively influence bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteopenia.

Sesame seeds possess anti-inflammatory, osteoprotective, and oxidative stress-reducing effects while maintaining serum estradiol in osteoporotic rats. The phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase A (PI3K/PKA) and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK2) pathways mediate the protective effect of sesame oil in non-pregnant female rats.

Conclusions

The study results showed that regular supplementation with sesame oil can prevent osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. The oil increased bone formation, reduced bone resorption indicators, and elevated serum aromatase and estradiol levels, suggesting higher aromatase levels could be a method for maintaining serum estrogen in rats administered sesame oil.

Sesame oil reduced serum alkaline phosphatase levels while simultaneously increasing osteocalcin and overall bone mineral density in OVX rats.

Sesame oil also increased PICP levels in the blood and simultaneously decreased NTx levels, suggesting it may contribute to maintaining bone turnover. These results point to a great potential for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, further studies are needed to determine the oil’s influence on increasing BMD through the RANKL/RANK/OPG signaling pathway.

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