Home Medizin Darmgesundheit hängt mit dem Fortschreiten der Alzheimer-Krankheit zusammen; Studie legt nahe, dass eine Diät eine mögliche Therapie sein könnte

Darmgesundheit hängt mit dem Fortschreiten der Alzheimer-Krankheit zusammen; Studie legt nahe, dass eine Diät eine mögliche Therapie sein könnte

von NFI Redaktion

Researchers in Australia recently conducted a study published in the Nutrients journal to understand the biodiversity of gut microbiota and its role in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. They also examined how factors such as prebiotics, probiotics, and diet influence different stages of Alzheimer’s disease.

Study: The role of diet and gut microbiota in Alzheimer's disease. Image credit: Design_Cells/Shutterstock

Background

Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive cognitive impairments that impact daily life and functionality. These cognitive impairments affect abilities such as decision-making, memory, problem-solving, thinking, and mobility, often accompanied by drastic personality changes. Cognitive decline is attributed to the formation of amyloid beta plaques and hyperphosphorylation of tau neurofibrillary tangles, which also lead to inflammations.

Recent studies have also found that the gut microbiome-brain axis plays a crucial role in influencing the risk of mental disorders such as depression and various neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease. It has been noted that individuals with mild cognitive impairments and Alzheimer’s disease show lower diversity indices for gut microbiota compared to healthy control subjects.

It is known that various factors such as age, genetics, diet, and antibiotic use influence the gut microbiome. Understanding the interactions between these factors, the gut microbiome, and their potential connections to Alzheimer’s disease pathology could be helpful in early identification of at-risk individuals for developing the disease.

Alzheimer’s Disease and Gut Microbiota

In the present review, the researchers discussed the incidence rates of Alzheimer’s disease worldwide and in Australia. They also shed light on the incidence rates of dementia and young-onset dementia, as well as the associated mortality risk with dementia. Studies from the United States (USA) have shown that annual healthcare costs related to Alzheimer’s and dementia exceed 600 billion US dollars and are projected to rise significantly by 2030.

The review also delved into what is known about the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease, including detailed discussions on the formation of amyloid beta plaques in the brain, starting from orbits frontalis, temporal, and basal neocortex regions, and extending beyond the amygdala, basal ganglia, hippocampus, and midbrain.

Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain the mechanisms by which amyloid beta peptides and tau neurofibrillary tangles contribute to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease, such as the hyperphosphorylation of tau neurofibrillary tangles and the amyloid cascade. The review expanded on these hypotheses as well as other potential mechanisms such as mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation.

Studies exploring the link between gut microbiota and Alzheimer’s disease have reported an association between specific gut microbes and different concentrations of Alzheimer’s biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid. Other studies have found a relationship between gut microbiome composition and amyloid peptide levels in the brain. The researchers presented a detailed discussion of existing research on associations between specific gut microbes and various pathological aspects of Alzheimer’s disease.

Diet, Gut Microbiome, and Alzheimer’s Disease

The well-established understanding that diet plays a crucial role in influencing the composition and diversity of gut microbiota was highlighted in the review. The composition of gut microbiota can also be altered by specific dietary habits and consumption of various dietary supplements, which in turn can impact the gut-brain axis and influence the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease.

The review extensively discussed the role of various dietary components such as protein, fiber, fat, and polyphenols, and different dietary patterns in influencing the gut microbiome environment and composition. It also reported studies that have shown significant improvements in cognitive function of Alzheimer’s patients following certain dietary patterns such as the ketogenic diet, Mediterranean diet, and diets targeting hypertension and neurodegeneration.

The researchers also found that while research findings on the use of pre- and probiotic supplements as therapeutic options for Alzheimer’s disease are still limited, various studies have reported that the use of pre- and probiotics, as well as combinations of both, can influence the progression of Alzheimer’s disease-related neuropathology.

Conclusions

In summary, the review extensively examines existing research on the interplay between diet, gut microbiota, and pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. The findings suggest that gut dysbiosis is closely related to the progression of Alzheimer’s disease pathology and represents a potential avenue for non-invasive therapy and risk modification.

Journal Reference:

  • Dissanayaka, DM Sithara, Jayasena, V., Rainey-Smith, SR, Martins, RN, & Fernando, WMADB (2024). The role of diet and gut microbiota in Alzheimer’s disease.Nutrients, 16(3). DOI 10.3390/nu16030412, https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/16/3/412

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