In een studie die onlangs is gepubliceerd in het tijdschrift EBioMedicine, onderzocht een team van wetenschappers de relatie tussen lichamelijke activiteit en de darmmicrobiota met behulp van versnellingsmeters om het niveau van zittende, matige en intense lichamelijke activiteit te beoordelen.
Studie: Auf Beschleunigungsmessern basierende körperliche Aktivität wird mit der Darmmikrobiota bei 8416 Personen in SCAPIS in Verbindung gebracht. Bildnachweis: Zhanna Mendel / Shutterstock
There is more and more evidence that an optimal level of physical activity reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and mental disorders such as depression. Furthermore, sedentary habits, involving activities that include prolonged sitting or lying, increase the risk of cardiovascular mortality and type 2 diabetes, and these risks can be reduced by high-intensity physical activity. Recent studies have also shown that the positive effects of exercise on health may be mediated by changes in the gut microbiome.
Extensive research results also suggest that the gut microbiome plays an important role in the development of various diseases and mental health problems. Besides interactions with the host in the gastrointestinal tract, it is believed that the gut microbiota also produces neurotransmitters that can influence the immune system, the central nervous system, and brain homeostasis through various neural pathways and the gut-brain-microbiota axis. Physical activity and resulting changes in blood flow, enterohepatic movement of bile acids, gut permeability, and gut immunity can influence the gut microbiota.
Über die Studie
In the present study, the researchers used data from a Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bio Imaging Study to determine if sedentary, moderate, and vigorous physical activity are associated with changes in the gut microbiome. While numerous previous studies have examined this association, most were based on self-reported measures of physical activity, which could be subject to bias. Additionally, the authors believe that the taxonomic resolution of intestinal microbes in these studies was limited.
This study used data from a hip-worn accelerometer to obtain a more reliable and accurate measure of the level of physical activity. Additionally, it was believed that the use of deep shotgun metagenomics would provide high-resolution taxonomic information about the microbial communities in the gut.
Study participants were required to complete a detailed questionnaire about health and medical history, diet, and lifestyle habits. They underwent a series of physical and clinical examinations including lung, coronary artery, and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans. Participants also provided stool samples, which were used for gut microbiome analysis. An accelerometer was worn by all participants around the hip for one week, except during water activities or while sleeping.
The accelerometer data were converted into counts per minute, which were then used to define sedentary, low, moderate, and vigorous physical activity according to previously validated thresholds in earlier studies. For all stool samples, DNA extraction was performed, and the extracted DNA was then used to identify metagenomic species.
To determine alpha diversity, various indices of species diversity, such as the inverse Simpson index, Shannon diversity index, and species richness, were calculated. Additionally, dissimilarity in microbial composition among the samples was determined by computing beta diversity.
The results showed that the association between physical inactivity or very low physical activity and the frequency of various gut microbial species was inverse to the association between moderate or vigorous physical activity and the frequency of various gut microbiota species.
The abundance of Escherichia coli was found to be associated with high levels of sedentary physical activity, while moderate levels of physical activity were associated with lower E. coli abundance. The abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria such as those of the Roseburia genus and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was high in individuals with moderate and vigorous physical activity.
Additionally, differences in species abundance were also observed, such as Prevotella copri, between individuals with moderate physical activity and those in the high physical activity group. The abundance of P. copri was higher in association with moderate physical activity, but no association with P. copri abundance was observed with vigorous physical activity.
It was also found that the functional potential of the gut microbiome varies with different levels of physical activity. Moderate physical activity was associated with higher acetate and butyrate synthesis, while intense training was associated with higher propionate synthesis, and sedentary activities were associated with the gut microbiota’s lower ability to metabolize carbohydrates.
Overall, the results suggest that the level of physical activity is strongly associated with the frequency of specific gut microbes. Additionally, the diversity and abundance of the gut microbiota, and thus its functional potential, changed depending on the level of physical activity. Sedentary habits and higher levels of physical activity showed an inverse association with the abundance and diversity of the gut microbiome.
- Baldanzi, G., Sayols-Baixeras, S., Ekblom-Bak, E., Ekblom, Ö., Dekkers, KF, Hammar, U., Nguyen, D., Ahmad, S., Ericson, U., Arvidsson, D., Börjesson, M., Johanson, PJ, Gustav, SJ, Bergström, G., Lind, L., Engström, G., Ärnlöv, J., Kennedy, B., Orho-Melander, M. & Fall , T. (2024). Auf Beschleunigungsmessern basierende körperliche Aktivität wird mit der Darmmikrobiota bei 8416 Personen in SCAPIS in Verbindung gebracht. EBioMedizin100. DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2024.104989, https://www.thelancet.com/journals/ebiom/article/PIIS2352-3964(24)00024-0/fulltext